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What does the syllabus for the self-study exam include?

As a popular form of continuing education, more and more people choose to take the self-taught examination to improve their academic qualifications. Many people who want to improve their academic qualifications are puzzled and want to take the self-taught undergraduate course, but they don’t know the specific policies of the self-taught examination. What does the self-taught examination outline include?

Click to enter:If you have any questions about the self-study exam, don’t know how to choose the main examination institution and major, and don’t know the local policy of self-study exam, click to learn now > >

What does the syllabus for the self-study exam include?

The syllabus of the self-taught examination generally includes the nature and setting purpose of the self-taught examination course, the examination contents and objectives, relevant explanations and implementation requirements.

Among them, "assessment content and assessment objectives" is the main part of the syllabus, which stipulates the content range and assessment depth of each part of the self-taught course, and is the basic basis for determining the distribution of test questions in each part of the course and assessing the proportion of test questions at different levels of understanding, key points, sub-key points and general knowledge.

"Description and implementation requirements" may involve the types of test questions used in this course (sample questions may also be given), the difficulty ratio of self-taught test questions, the length of the test, etc., and the proposition should also be followed or referred to.

At present, the syllabus of the national unified proposition course for self-taught examination is attached to the designated teaching materials, and candidates should study according to the designated teaching materials and course examination syllabus. However, at present, there is no examination syllabus for some self-taught unified proposition courses in the province, so the candidates can learn from the designated teaching materials.

1. All legal citizens in China, regardless of gender, age, nationality and current academic qualifications, can take the self-study exam, and then they can register at the time and place specified by the local education examination institute.

2. Candidates who apply for the self-taught undergraduate course need to bring their college diploma and their ID cards to the registration point of the self-taught examination when registering for the self-taught examination. Because some undergraduate majors are different from their own specialties, at this time, you need to take courses in related professional examinations.

3. Another point that needs to be emphasized is that if you want to register for the self-taught undergraduate course, you must hold a college diploma recognized by the state.

4. There are some majors that have been suspended, and only candidates who are currently registered can apply for the exam. The specific matters of applying for the exam should be registered in accordance with the relevant documents.

5. Finally, when you receive the self-taught undergraduate diploma, you must hand in the original of your college diploma, otherwise, the school will not apply for your undergraduate diploma. Another point is that junior college students who are studying in the school can also apply for self-taught undergraduate courses. Similarly, they need to hold a junior college diploma when they receive an undergraduate diploma.

The above is related to the adult self-study exam, and candidates can use it as a reference, which is subject to the official announcement! Candidates who want to get more information about the self-taught examination, such as the registration time, examination time, application conditions, preparation knowledge and related news, please pay attention to the online self-taught examination channel of China Education.

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If you have any questions about the self-study exam, don’t know how to choose the main examination institution and major, and don’t know the local policy of self-study exam, click to learn now > >

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In April, 2024, all provinces registered for self-study exams in official website.

Summary of Registration Time and Entrance of Self-taught Exams in April 2024 by Provinces

The first place in Jiangsu liberal arts missed Qingbei. Do you understand the admission rules of the new college entrance examination?

  [Editor’s note] The candidates with the highest score in Jiangsu liberal arts are not allowed to go to Qingbei Nanda because their history subject level is B+. Many people said that they could not understand the current college entrance examination. In fact, in Jiangsu’s current "3+2" recruitment model, Tsinghua of Peking University has been asking for double A or above for many years. But this will be the last year for Jiangsu to use the old model. Jiangsu will implement the new college entrance examination plan next year. 澎湃 Mathematics course took Zhejiang, the first batch of reforms, as an example last year, sorting out the long examination course and 35 subject choices of the new college entrance examination. In a blink of an eye, Zhejiang sent out four new college entrance examination students. With minor adjustments and small patches, local reforms were rolled out one after another, and the reform ideas disassembled in this paper were basically continued.

  In our second and third year of high school, we may have experienced many exams and model exams, but the college entrance examination is only in June of the third year of high school, so it is also called "one exam will set you for life". However, in today’s high schools in Zhejiang, students of Grade Two begin to prepare for the academic proficiency test early, which may become the first record that affects college admission.

  The second year of high school started the college entrance examination, and it took two years to pass the "test"

  Du Yiming, 19, is a senior three student in a first-class key middle school in Zhejiang Province. In addition to the number of words, Du Yiming chose physics, chemistry and biology as college entrance examination subjects. His college entrance examination began in November of the last semester of Senior Two.There are more key exams, and "every time matters, you can’t relax every time".

  Du Yiming took part in the "first college entrance examination" of four subjects: biochemistry and foreign languages in November last year. On the first weekend of April this year, he will take part in the "second college entrance examination" for selected subjects. The results of the materialized students in these two exams will be included in the total score of the college entrance examination according to the grade assignment. By the time of the national college entrance examination in June, Du Yiming will face an exam beyond the number of languages. There is only one chance to get Chinese and math scores, and the foreign language scores will be included in the total score according to the actual test scores, based on the foreign language test results in November last year.

  When the national candidates finished the college entrance examination in early June, Du Yiming was greeted by the "Trinity" exam of Zhejiang University. For Zhejiang candidates, if they want to sprint to some top universities in China, such as Peking University and Tsinghua, it is best to take the "Trinity" exam which is put forward by these universities in mid-June. In the end, the results of this exam will be combined with the scores of six subjects in the college entrance examination and the scores of earlier academic level exams to form the admission transcripts in proportion. Such a "trinity" admission quota may account for more than 80% of the admission channels of these colleges and universities; If candidates intend to enter the above-mentioned colleges and universities solely by the results of the college entrance examination, it is not impossible, but it also means giving up many opportunities automatically.

  Du Yiming’s tense preparation schedule is not an isolated case. Compared with the traditional college entrance examination mode of "one exam determines life", the new college entrance examination reform in Zhejiang has undergone tremendous changes.

  To sum up, there are probably three new features:

  1. Cancel the division of arts and sciences, and use the new rule of "three subjects must be tested except the number of languages, and the other subjects should be selected from 7";

  2. Foreign languages and elective subjects are provided with 2 examination opportunities, and the highest score is included in the total score of the college entrance examination, and the elective subjects are graded according to the ranking;

  3. Not limited to the unified entrance examination, the "Trinity" enrollment scale of universities directly under the Ministry of Education in and outside the province has expanded.

  The road to the new college entrance examination is full of choices besides hard work.

  Option 1: Customize your own exam schedule.

  Every candidate has a dense examination schedule in his hand. Different from the traditional "one exam for life" model, each exam in the above table may affect the final admission.

  Do you want to participate in the "Trinity" enrollment? How many times do you need to take the exam? How many courses do you take each time? For these questions, candidates need to customize their own examination schedule according to their own situations and goals.

  If we take the recruitment path of the general college entrance examination, it will affect the admission of two rounds of elective examinations and the college entrance examination of three subjects other than languages. As for the academic examination, as long as we "pass the exam", it will do.

  If you take the "trinity" recruitment path, all the above exams will affect the admission: you need to get as many As possible A’s (accounting into the "trinity" total score) in the academic exam, take two rounds of elective exams and the college entrance examination outside the language number, as well as the "trinity" in-school test of your favorite university.

  At present, there are 57 colleges and universities participating in the "Trinity" enrollment in Zhejiang, including 49 colleges and universities in the province and 8 colleges and universities directly under the Ministry of Education. Tsinghua University, Peking University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Fudan University, Zhejiang University and China University of Science and Technology all participate in the "Trinity" enrollment.

  According to the information released by Zhejiang Education Examinations Institute, there are 8,690 "Trinity" enrollment plans for colleges and universities in Zhejiang Province this year, and the "Trinity" enrollment brochures for colleges and universities outside the province and directly under the Ministry of Education have not yet been released, with 1,664 students last year. Since the enrollment plan for the general college entrance examination in 2019 has not been announced, if we refer to the 231,000 college entrance examination enrollment in 2018, the ratio of the two enrollment numbers is about 1:23, and the proportion of the "Trinity" in all enrollment can not be underestimated; It is even more important to occupy more than 80% of the enrollment in some colleges and universities.

  Option 2: 35 combinations of courses, which three subjects to take?

  After the reform of Zhejiang College Entrance Examination, seven subjects were arranged and combined, and 35 different ways of selecting subjects were derived.

  The Paper (www.thepaper.cn) found a general administrative class of "Chemistry+Biology" graduated from a first-class key middle school in Zhejiang Province in June 2018, and recorded the decision of 57 students in this class to choose subjects.

  By comparing the ranking of each student in six large-scale exams in high school for three years, we find that it is very reasonable.Students should first consider the dominant subjects when choosing subjects.. Hao Chenfei, a teacher of the school, said: "Even if there is more room for some subjects in the future, students still choose subjects with their own advantages."

  In this class, we found that eight students chose three subjects with the best grades in Grade One.

  Such new rules may help some candidates to "overtake in corners".

  We find out two all-round academic tyrants and two partial scientific tyrants in our class for comparison. The results of all-round academic tyrants in every subject in Grade One of Senior High School are in the top 20% of the year, and the total scores of seven subjects rank the highest. The scores of the subjects selected by the partial science tyrants are all in the first 20% of the year, but the other subjects are relatively backward.

  Let’s look back at the distribution of the scores of the all-round academic tyrants and the partial scientific tyrants in the first year of high school. The scores of these four students in the selected subjects are relatively close, but judging from the total scores of seven subjects, the all-round academic tyrants are completely ahead of the partial scientific tyrants:

  By choosing subjects, the partial science master got rid of the inferior subjects, narrowed the distance with the all-round learning master, and even surpassed the all-round learning master in the final ranking. According to the grading method, we convert the ranking percentage of the above four students in the six large-scale exams from Grade One to Grade Three into grading, and illustrate the performance curves of these students. If you only look at the two exams in senior three, you can’t even judge who is the all-round academic tyrant and who is the partial scientific tyrant.

  In this class, there are also students who do not choose the dominant subjects completely according to their personal rankings.

  The reason for this phenomenon may be that candidates consider choosing a major in the future. Li Zirui, a senior three student in this school, became interested in computer programming in his freshman year. In order to further his studies in computer science in the future, he "chose physics almost without hesitation when choosing a subject".

  Option 3: How to foster strengths and avoid weaknesses under the customized rules of colleges and universities?

  The new college entrance examination rules also provide colleges and universities withMore recruitment autonomy.

  On the one hand, unlike in the past when there were only two types of students in arts and sciences, there are more targeted requirements for students to choose examination subjects when enrolling students in various majors in colleges and universities. For example, Peking University’s astronomy and psychology majors require candidates to choose subjects that contain physics; The majors of finance and finance in Renmin University of China require candidates to choose subjects containing history or physics; Zhejiang University’s humanities experimental class is not limited to elective subjects.

  According to Zhejiang Education Examinations Institute, in 2019, 6.8% of the subjects required for the examination were one, 8.8% were two, 23.3% were three and 61.1% were unlimited. Compared with 2017, in 2019, some colleges and universities put forward more explicit requirements for the selected subjects for majors with clear training requirements and high correlation with the subjects studied in middle schools, while those with broader basic literacy requirements appropriately relaxed the scope of the selected subjects.

  On the other hand, the "Trinity" comprehensive evaluation enrollment channel has been widened. Colleges and universities can organize on-campus tests more independently, screen students and select the best candidates through written tests, interviews and physical tests.

  Take eight universities outside Zhejiang Province and universities directly under the Ministry of Education in 2018 as an example. The total number of students enrolled by these top universities in Zhejiang through the college entrance examination is 1,696 (including 1,618 from Zhejiang University), while the number of students enrolled through the "Trinity" is 1,664, which is close to 1:1 in overall scale.

  If Zhejiang University is stripped off, the number of people recruited by other top universities in China through the "trinity" comprehensive evaluation has far exceeded the enrollment of the college entrance examination. In other words, if you are a fresh graduate and want to be admitted to the above seven top universities, the safest plan is to participate in the "trinity" comprehensive evaluation enrollment of these schools; Otherwise, when the college entrance examination is filed, even if there is a very good college entrance examination result, the enrollment places of these top college entrance examinations are few and far between. Take last year’s enrollment plan as an example.Tsinghua University enrolled 8 students in Zhejiang through the college entrance examination and 105 students in Zhejiang through the Trinity. Peking University enrolled 23 students in Zhejiang through the college entrance examination and 85 students in Zhejiang through the Trinity.

  In addition to broadening the enrollment channels, colleges and universities also have greater initiative in the on-campus testing stage, and can screen candidates in multiple dimensions such as written test, interview and physical fitness test.

  Taking the written test as an example, in the "Trinity" comprehensive evaluation test of top universities in China, physics, as a "sharp weapon" for screening candidates, has become a compulsory subject for most candidates. Even if the candidate’s college entrance examination subject is not physics, he may be examined in the written test on campus. According to Tsinghua University’s "Trinity" Comprehensive Evaluation Admissions Guide for Zhejiang Province in 2018, in the on-campus test, 77.1% of the candidates were examined in physics during the written test.

  Peking University’s "Trinity" comprehensive evaluation is similar. Regarding the written test content of college tests, Peking University’s 2018 Zhejiang "Trinity" comprehensive evaluation enrollment brochure stipulates that there are five written test subjects, of which three subjects are required to be tested, and two are selected from the four subjects of "physics, history, chemistry and politics", requiring "physics".

  In 2014, Du Yubo, then Vice Minister of Education, used four "most" words to describe the reform of the new college entrance examination: "This examination enrollment system reform is the most comprehensive and systematic reform since the resumption of the college entrance examination, and it is the most important and complicated reform in the comprehensive education reform".

  In a blink of an eye, Zhejiang New College Entrance Examination has sent out two students. In 2019, senior high school students are about to sprint the college entrance examination in June and become the third graduates of the new college entrance examination. In the process of implementation, minor adjustments are still taking place in Zhejiang.

  No matter the front-line teachers and students or the education reform experts, there is no agreement on how to deal with this zero-sum game. In a broader sense, it remains to be seen where the college entrance examination reform in China will go.

  At the request of the interviewee, the teachers and students in this article are all pseudonyms.

Kunming: Fireworks and firecrackers are on sale in the Spring Festival of 2024.


  On January 30th, fireworks and firecrackers started to be sold in five main urban areas and three development (holiday) areas of Kunming in the Spring Festival of 2024, and the retail outlets of fireworks and firecrackers in various urban areas opened their doors one after another.

  On January 31, the reporter went to the fireworks and firecrackers retail point at the intersection of Yuyang Road and Yupu Road in Dianchi Resort. The sales staff were wearing special protective clothing "pure cotton flame retardant clothing" and were busy placing and selling goods in the sales warehouse. Although it was morning, many citizens had come to inquire and buy. "Our retail store has an area of more than 20 square meters, and according to the relevant regulations, it can hold up to 140 fireworks and firecrackers," the salesperson said. "We have more than 200 kinds of fireworks and firecrackers, and only one third of them are placed today. Later, we will pick up the goods from the warehouse according to the sales situation."

  According to the requirements of Kunming Emergency Bureau, all 304 retail outlets in five main urban areas and three development (holiday) areas in Kunming use explosion-proof warehouses for sales, and all of them have installed video surveillance systems to implement 24-hour monitoring. There are signs on the stalls in all retail outlets that "it is forbidden to set off fireworks and firecrackers within 80 meters around the point of sale". The fireworks and firecrackers safety commitment letter and business license and other related documents are posted on the walls of the store, and fire extinguishers, buckets and other fire-fighting facilities are placed outside the store. Through layer-by-layer protection, the awareness of fireworks and firecrackers’ business safety and law-abiding and emergency handling ability are effectively enhanced, and fireworks and firecrackers are strictly "safely closed".

  According to the "Management Measures for Fireworks and Firecrackers in Kunming", the operation and discharge time of the Spring Festival in 2024 in five main urban areas and three development (holiday) areas in Kunming is from the twentieth day of the twelfth lunar month to the fifteenth day of the first month, that is, from January 30 to February 24, for a total of 26 days.

  Yunnan net reporter Hu Yuya’s photo report

The session will not fall! Changan automobile won the double honor [self-reliance through science and technology < 44 >]

On the evening of January 28th.

Central radio and television main station

The 4th China Automobile Fengyun Festival Awards Ceremony

Held at Beijing National Gymnasium.

At this grand ceremony

Changan Automobile Global Design Team, Aouita 12

They were awarded "Pioneer Design Team of the Year"

"Best Intelligent Driving"

Won two honors

Fully demonstrated Changan Automobile.

Hard core strength in the field of design and products

It is understood that

"China Automobile Fengyun Festival" is sponsored by the Central Radio and Television General Station and specially planned by the Financial Program Center of the General Station, aiming at the China automobile market, to select the annual outstanding models with strong products, market guidance and future development trends for consumers, and is known as the "wind vane of the automobile industry".

As the most authoritative event in the domestic automobile industry, it has been held for four consecutive years, and Changan Automobile has never failed.

In 2020 China Automobile Fengyun Festival, Changan Automobile CS75PLUS won the "Best Intelligent Networked Car of the Year".

In 2021 China Automobile Fengyun Festival, Changan Ford EVOS won the "Best Smart Car" and a new generation of Lincoln navigator NAUTILUS won the "Best Power Car".

At the 3rd China Automobile Fengyun Festival, Changan Automobile Force Electric won the "Special Award of Jury" and Deep Blue SL03 won the "Grand Prize of Jury".

Original title: "The session does not fall! Changan automobile won the double honor [self-reliance through science and technology < 44 >].

Read the original text

The "double points" policy of new energy vehicles will be adjusted again. Can car companies cope with it easily?

  Focused double integral

  The new energy automobile industry in 2019 is doomed to be unsettled. In the post-subsidy era, the double-point policy related to the development of new energy vehicle market will be adjusted again. In early September, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and other relevant departments announced the Decision on Amending the Measures for the Parallel Management of Average Fuel Consumption of Passenger Car Enterprises and New Energy Vehicle Points (Draft for Comment). All-media reporters combed the new "double points" draft for comments and found that this time it mainly involved a number of content adjustments, including changes in the calculation method of points, redefining traditional energy passenger cars, and clarifying the definition of low-fuel passenger cars, which brought new changes to new energy vehicles.

  Text, photo: Guangzhou Daily all-media reporter Deng Li

  Break the rules!

  Pure electric vehicles no longer share the integral pressure of high-displacement vehicles.

  The adjustment of pure electric vehicles in the new "double integral" draft for comments has attracted much attention. For example, Article 10 is added: "The actual value of average fuel consumption of traditional energy passenger cars in enterprises refers to the actual value of average fuel consumption of enterprises in which new energy vehicles do not participate in accounting." This new regulation means that the new energy and traditional energy passenger cars of car companies will be accounted for independently in the future. It is widely believed in the industry that this will break the rules that pure electric vehicles share the fuel consumption points of large-displacement fuel vehicles.

  Cui Dongshu, Secretary-General of the National Passenger Car Information Association, said that before, some traditional fuel car companies actively laid out new energy fields in response to the "double-integral" policy, so as to achieve the effect that high-displacement vehicles rely on pure electric vehicles to share the pressure of double-integral, and this method will not be feasible in the future. The new "double-integral" draft for comments allows new energy vehicles not to participate in the average fuel consumption accounting of traditional energy passenger cars, which will help new energy vehicles to further accelerate their development.

  Hybrid benefits!

  Encourage the development of low fuel consumption vehicles.

  In the new "double integral" draft for comments, there is also a regulation that is regarded as affecting the development trend of new energy vehicles. That is, Article 16 is added: "When calculating the integral standard value of new energy vehicles of passenger car enterprises, the production or import of low-fuel passenger cars shall be calculated according to 0.5 times of its quantity." According to the current understanding, all vehicles whose fuel consumption meets the standard under comprehensive working conditions can be considered as low-fuel passenger vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles with obvious fuel-saving effect. Therefore, industry experts generally believe that this is to strongly encourage the development of low fuel consumption models.

  All-media reporters noticed that on July 9 this year, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology had publicly solicited opinions from the public on the amendment (draft for comments) to the Measures for the Parallel Management of Average Fuel Consumption of Passenger Car Enterprises and New Energy Vehicle Points, and proposed for the first time to give preferential treatment to non-plug-in hybrid vehicles. This has benefited the hybrid models of Japanese companies such as Toyota and Honda. For the new adjustment, the relevant car companies said they were waiting to see. For example, Honda China said that it is studying and studying the revised opinion draft, and has not made any product adjustments for the opinion draft.

  The weight of cruising range decreases.

  The energy consumption requirements of pure electric vehicles are improved.

  The new "double points" exposure draft adjusts the calculation method of new energy passenger car models, and reduces the impact of cruising range on new energy vehicle points. In terms of the lower limit of pure electric passenger cars, the revised draft stipulates for the first time that all passenger cars with cruising range below 150km will be accumulated according to 1 point; At the same time, the upper limit of fuel cell vehicle points is increased by 1 point compared with the current regulations. At the same time, based on the current pure electric vehicle with a cruising range of 350km on the market, according to the previous "double points" policy, the maximum accumulated points can be 5, and if calculated according to the adjusted double points policy amendment, only 2.5 points can be obtained.

  Insiders said that on the one hand, through the adjustment of the integral calculation formula, it will link up with the existing policies in terms of vehicle technical indicators and guide the technological progress of the industry; On the other hand, optimize the index system and strengthen the requirements for energy consumption and other indicators that reflect the advanced nature of the whole vehicle.

  Modify points trading rules

  Increase by 2% every year.

  The second paragraph of Article 22 in the new "Double Points" exposure draft is amended as: "The positive points of new energy vehicles of passenger car enterprises can be freely traded according to these Measures. The positive points of new energy vehicles generated in 2019 and beyond will be carried forward in accordance with the following rules, and the validity period of the carry-forward will not exceed three years.

  All-media reporters noticed that the new "double points" exposure draft gave clear carry-over rules for the new energy points, and additionally stipulated that it could be carried over in 2019. Previously, the "double points" policy stipulated that the positive points of new energy vehicles should not be carried forward, and the adjustment plan not only encouraged traditional energy passenger car enterprises to actively reduce fuel consumption, but also encouraged enterprises that only produced new energy vehicles, which could bring more new energy points to the points trading market.

  In addition, the second paragraph of Article 17 in the new "Double Integral" exposure draft is amended as: "In 2021, 2022 and 2023, the integral proportion of new energy vehicles is required to be 14%, 16% and 18% respectively. The requirements for the proportion of new energy vehicle points in 2024 and beyond will be announced separately by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. " Compared with the current "double points" policy, the proportion of new energy points in 2019 and 2020 is 10% and 12% respectively, and the "double points" of new energy will increase at an equal rate of 2% every year from 2019 to 2023. The industry believes that most car companies can easily cope with the "double points" policy.

  Methanol and other fuel vehicles

  Incorporate into traditional passenger cars

  It is worth noting that the new "double-integral" draft revised the third paragraph of Article 4 as follows: "The traditional energy passenger cars mentioned in these Measures refer to passenger cars (including non-plug-in hybrid passenger cars) that can burn gasoline, diesel, gas fuel or alcohol ether fuel, etc., except new energy passenger cars." Alcohol ether fuel refers to methanol, dimethyl ether and other clean fuels for replacing gasoline and diesel. If it is included in the category of traditional passenger cars, it can realize the maximum clean and reasonable utilization of coal resources. In other words, diversification of vehicle fuels and ensuring energy security are being put on the agenda.

  [market observation]

  Conducive to the healthy development of the industry

  According to the previously published Evaluation Method and Index of Passenger Car Fuel Consumption, by 2025, the average fuel consumption index of Chinese automobile enterprises will be 4L per 100 kilometers. To achieve this target, we need a balanced development of the market. Cui Dongshu said: The new version of the "double integral" amendment provides a more relaxed environment for the development of new energy automobile industry, and on the other hand, it also takes into account the development needs of energy-saving vehicles, which will play a good guiding role in the development of the industry. The new adjustment of the "double integral" policy has attracted the industry’s most attention to the integral calculation method proposed for low-fuel consumption vehicles, which means that the requirements for new energy integral are also reduced, which can be expected to promote the popularization of energy-saving technologies and hybrid technologies for fuel vehicles, such as 48V micro-mixing, idle start-stop and other energy-saving technologies will be better promoted.

  At the same time, Japanese companies with obvious advantages in hybrid technology of oil and electricity are also welcoming vitality. In this way, it can also reduce the "virtual fire" caused by the development of pure electric vehicles in the market, and traditional car companies do not have to rush to abandon the internal combustion engine technology and concentrate on the new energy field. This is conducive to the balanced development of the automobile market, so as to achieve the goal of 4L with high quality.

  For joint ventures and foreign brands, it is also very beneficial to include hybrid models in the assessment; Especially for the major domestic automobile groups that rely on joint venture brands to contribute profits, slowing down the market in the automobile market can be described as a timely help.

  All-media reporters noticed that although the new "double points" policy is still being solicited, joint venture car companies have accelerated in the field of new energy vehicles, especially hybrid models. For example, BMW, Dongben, Lincoln, Jeep, etc. have launched new hybrid models. Generally speaking, the constantly adjusted "double integral" policy is also exploring the most suitable development route, but the general direction of energy saving will never change.

Managing finance and stabilizing real estate … China’s economy will do six major things in the second half of the year.

  BEIJING, Beijing, July 28 (Reporter Li Jinlei) China’s economic situation has been stable and improving in the first half of the year. What should China do in the second half of the year? In this regard, the central government has made it clear that it is necessary to adhere to the general tone of striving for progress in stability and focus on six aspects of work, including rectifying financial chaos, stabilizing the real estate market and resolving local debt risks.

  What do you think of the economic situation in the first half of the year?

  &mdash; &mdash; Steady progress, deepening structural adjustment

  To do a good job in China’s next economic work, we must first accurately judge the current economic situation. The the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee meeting held on July 24th held that the economy operated in a reasonable range, the main indicators were better than expected, urban employment increased steadily, fiscal revenue, corporate profits and residents’ income increased rapidly, and quality and efficiency rebounded.

  "The overall judgment is that the economic situation in the first half of the year was stable and the structural adjustment was deepened." Yang Weimin, deputy director of the Central Financial and Economic Leading Group Office, once again summed up the economic situation in China at the press conference held by the State Council Office on the 27th.

  Behind these judgments is the support of groups of data. The data shows that GDP in the first half of the year increased by 6.9% year-on-year, an increase of 0.2 percentage points over the same period of the previous year, which is the highest value since the fourth quarter of 2015. There were 7.35 million new jobs in urban and rural areas, an increase of 180,000 over the same period of last year. The overall price level remained stable, and the CPI rose by 1.4% year-on-year, which was the same as that in the first quarter. After deducting the price factor, the per capita disposable income of residents actually increased by 7.3%, which continued to be higher than the economic growth rate.

  "Looking at the economic situation depends on both the present and the long-term; It depends on both indicators and expectations; We must see both achievements and problems. " Yang Weimin believes that although the economy is stable and improving in the first half of the year, there are still some problems. For example, the problem of poor circulation in the real economy is still serious, and the task of preventing and resolving financial risks is still arduous. The long-term mechanism for the stable and healthy development of the real estate market has not yet been established, and the pressure of rising enterprise costs is also increasing. In addition, the trend differentiation of regions, industries and enterprises is also intensifying to some extent.

  What’s the keynote for the second half of the year?

  &mdash; &mdash; act on the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability

  Fully affirm the achievements without avoiding the problems. A scientific judgment of China’s economic situation is also the basis for doing a good job in economic work in the second half of the year. In the second half of the year, what is the tone to do?

  In this regard, the the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee meeting set the tone: to do a good job in economic work in the second half of the year, we should adhere to the general tone of striving for progress while maintaining stability, better grasp the relationship between stability and progress, balance, opportunity and degree.

  How to understand striving for progress while maintaining stability? Yang Weimin believes that stability is the main tone, that is to say, we should strive for progress on the premise of maintaining overall stability. However, striving for progress in stability is not inaction, not strong stability and mechanical stability, but doing something and working hard on the premise of grasping the degree.

  Yang Weimin also said that it is very important to grasp the balance, the opportunity and the degree while doing something. We should not only prevent blind leaps and bounds, but also prevent timidity and inaction, both to prevent "going too far" and to avoid "not being as good as".

  How to do it in the second half of the year?

  &mdash; &mdash; Focus on six aspects of work.

  How to carry out economic work in the second half of the year? Yang Weimin said that the central authorities stressed that efforts should be made to do a good job in six aspects in the second half of the year: First, unswervingly deepen the structural reform of the supply side. Second, actively and steadily resolve the accumulated local government debt risks. Third, deepen and solidly rectify financial chaos. Fourth, effectively stabilize the real estate market. Fifth, stabilize foreign investment and private investment. Sixth, attach great importance to the work of people’s livelihood.

  The reporter noted that "deleveraging" in the supply-side structural reform, local debt, financial chaos, real estate market and investment all involve finance, and "keeping the bottom line of systemic financial risks" was also identified as one of the goals of China’s economic work in the second half of the year.

  Wang Zhijun, director of the First Economic Bureau of the Central Financial and Economic Leading Group Office, pointed out that both "black swan" and "grey rhinoceros" may impact the bottom line of financial risks. For the hidden risks of "grey rhinoceros", such as shadow banking, real estate bubble, high leverage of state-owned enterprises, local debts, illegal fund-raising and other issues, it is necessary to find out the situation, distinguish the priorities and the degree of influence, highlight the key points, and take effective measures to properly solve them.

  "In the second half of the year, we should do a good job of deleveraging, because this is the source of risk." Yang Weimin pointed out that the National Financial Work Conference emphasized that deleveraging of state-owned enterprises should be the top priority. If state-owned enterprises deleverage, the leverage of the enterprise sector will definitely decline, and the leverage of the entire national economy will also decline. This is to prevent and control from the source. We can’t let the leverage ratio continue to rise in order to maintain growth.

  Gao Feng, spokesman of the Ministry of Commerce, mentioned at a regular press conference on the 27th that he would continue to do a good job in preventing foreign investment risks with relevant departments to ensure the healthy, standardized and orderly development of foreign investment. For foreign investment in real estate, hotels, cinemas, entertainment, sports clubs and other fields, it is recommended that relevant enterprises make prudent decisions.

On the first day of golf swing in Hangzhou Asian Games, Zhuzhou Yazi Chen Guxin temporarily ranked fourth.

On the first day of the competition, Chen Guxin handed in a score of 63 under par 9. This article photography/Fu Huanyu
Red Net News September 28th(Reporter Fu Yuyu) On the morning of September 28th, the golf project of Hangzhou Asian Games was held at Hangzhou West Lake International Golf Course. Chen Guxin, a 20-year-old from Zhuzhou, Hunan Province, ranked fourth among all the athletes in the first round with a score of 63 under par 9. In addition, Chen Guxin also participated in the team competition with national team teammates Ding Wenyi and Wu Ashun.
Chen Guxin pushed the ball steadily to the hole.
After the game, in an interview with the Red Net sports reporter, Chen Guxin gave a satisfactory score for his performance on the first day. "When I first came up, I was still a little nervous and didn’t let go completely, so I made some mistakes. Fortunately, I played my state bit by bit and seized many good opportunities."
Chen Guxin (right) and Karin Hitsh Josh (left) communicate in the competition.
Although it is the first time to participate in the Asian Games, Chen Guxin is no stranger to Hangzhou West Lake International Golf Course. This year, Chen Guxin won the runner-up in the "Charming Hangzhou" West Lake International Golf Open. Zhang Yubin, a South Korean athlete, and Karin Hitsh Josh, an Indian athlete in the same group, are also old rivals that Chen Guxin has encountered many times in the Asian Tour, and they have a good relationship with each other. During the competition, the three people often joke in English to cheer each other up.
On the first day of the competition, Chen Guxin (middle) competed with South Korean athlete Zhang Yubin (right) and Indian athlete Karin Hitsh Josh (left).
The golf competition will last from September 28th to October 1st, and 18 holes will be played every day, and individual and team champions will be produced with the final result of four days. Chen Guxin said that he would relax, enjoy this rare trip to the Asian Games and strive for good results.
Chen Guxin swung vigorously to kick off.
"I also want to thank my hometown elders for their care and support, and my leaders, coaches and teammates in Hunan. I will fight for China and Hunan in the Asian Games." Chen Guxin said.
Red Net Sports supported by Xiangjiao Liquor Industry reported from the front.
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[National Fitness Day] @ Skiers don’t fall into these misunderstandings!

With the approach of the Winter Olympics, the public’s interest in ice and snow sports is increasing day by day. Among them, as a popular sport of ice and snow, skiing has gained a lot of fans. "Many people want to come to the ski resort to experience it now, and the number of skiers suddenly shows an bursting state." Zhao Yue, head coach of Beijing Lianhuashan Ski Resort, told Guangming. com.

People’s high interest in skiing is certainly worthy of recognition, but there are still some cognitive misunderstandings. On the occasion of National Fitness Day, come and recognize these misunderstandings of skiing!

Children experience the pleasure of skiing. (Sun Kaifang/photo)

Myth 1: Skiing can only be carried out in northern winter.

Some people think that skiing has high requirements for time and place, and it needs to go to the northern cities in winter.

[Coach dispels doubts]

In this regard, Zhao Yue said that skiing has already broken the boundaries between time and space. Many southern cities have also built ice and snow venues, and people can enjoy skiing at home. Skiing is no longer just a winter sport. In hot summer, people can also choose to ski in indoor ski resorts, which is cool and healthy.

In addition, there are ski simulators in clubs in many big cities. "It’s similar to normal skiing, but the location has changed from snow to machine." Zhao Yue said that there is a 5× 10m field in the middle of the ski simulator, on which there is an upward rolling conveyor belt, and people can put on snowshoes and skis to slide on it. The special material on the conveyor belt can give participants a feeling of skiing, but the sliding speed will be slower, which is suitable for beginners.

Myth 2: Skiing threshold is high.

Many people think that skiing is a difficult sport and requires participants to have a high foundation. In addition, some people think that skiing is a "money-burning" sport, and whether it is skiing tickets or skiing equipment, it is not a small expense. Is the threshold for skiing really so high?

[Coach dispels doubts]

"In fact, this is not the case." Zhao Yue said that there are two main restrictions on skiers, one is their age and the other is their health. The ski resort stipulates that children under 4 years old are not allowed to ski, and older people should judge whether they are suitable for skiing according to their physical condition. Under normal circumstances, people with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are not recommended to ski. If skiers have had ligament tears and fractures before, it depends on their recovery before judging whether they can ski.

Regarding the skiing cost, Zhao Yue took Beijing Lianhuashan Ski Resort as an example and calculated an account for the reporter. On weekdays, the price of a 4-hour ski ticket for one person is -108 yuan in 88 yuan, and the total cost will play a role in 150 yuan. It can be seen that skiing is not as expensive as you think. Zhao Yue suggested that the public can give priority to some small and medium-sized ski resorts when they experience skiing. "The prices of small and medium-sized ski resorts are usually lower. Beginners generally start to experience from the primary ski slopes. The slopes of the primary ski slopes of each ski resort are basically the same."

Myth 3: Short people are more suitable for learning skiing.

During skiing, it is very important for participants to control the center of gravity. There is a saying that the lower the center of gravity, the easier the skiing process is to control, so does it mean that short people are more suitable for learning skiing?

[Coach dispels doubts]

Zhao Yue said that this statement is not very accurate. To be precise, short people will learn to ski faster. Because short people have low center of gravity, it is easier to grasp the center of gravity in the process of learning skiing; Tall people, on the other hand, have a high center of gravity and are easy to swing back and forth, so they will be slower in mastering balance. "It can only be said that the level of the center of gravity has a certain impact on learning efficiency, but it does not mean that the learning effect is good or bad."

For this reason, Zhao Yue suggested that skiing should start with children. "Children are short, so it is easier to master skiing skills.".

Myth 4: People with poor balance should avoid learning skiing.

Many people who think they have a poor sense of balance are full of fear of skiing. So, can people with poor balance learn to ski?

[Coach dispels doubts]

Zhao Yue said that the sense of balance is not a factor that restricts people from learning to ski. "People with poor balance just learn to ski more slowly, but once they learn it, they won’t forget it." Zhao Yue said that skiing is a skill-based sport, just like riding a bicycle. It may be a little unfamiliar without contact for a long time, but with a little practice, you can get your feeling back.

Zhao Yue suggested that beginners with poor balance should give priority to snowboarding. "Getting started with two boards will be relatively simple, because the two feet are fixed on two boards respectively, and beginners will be more confident in maintaining balance."

Myth 5: When skiing, snow goggles is dispensable.

Many people don’t wear snow goggles when skiing, especially some friends who wear glasses. They think it’s more troublesome to wear a snow goggles outside their glasses. So, is snow goggles dispensable when skiing?

[Coach dispels doubts]

Zhao Yue said that the snow goggles is as necessary as the helmet in skiing. Snow goggles has two functions, one is to prevent the damage to the eyes caused by sunlight reflected from the snow surface, and the other is to prevent the stimulation of the eyes caused by the wind during sliding. "If it is cloudy, people can slide on the primary road without wearing snow goggles." Zhao Yue said.

In addition, Zhao Yue reminded that sunscreen is also very important for skiers who participate in outdoor skiing. It is suggested that skiers wear sunscreen every two hours to prevent ultraviolet rays from burning their skin.

(Guangming. com reporter zhangqian)

Source: Guangming Net

The annual flavor of the construction site is very full, and the special reunion dinner is very warm

The project site is full of flavor, and foreign workers are happy for the holidays.

02:25
In response to the initiative of celebrating the New Year on the spot, 24 foreign workers and project department managers had a happy New Year’s dinner recently.
At 12 noon, the workers came to the canteen after work. Red lanterns, blessed characters and colorful balloons were filled with a strong New Year atmosphere. The person in charge of the project department extended New Year greetings and New Year wishes to the workers.
Hu Jing, manager of Wudong Reconstruction Project Department of China No.1 Metallurgical Company.
Fellow workers, you have worked hard! First of all, I would like to thank you for your positive response to the call to celebrate the New Year on the spot. At the same time, on behalf of Wudong Reconstruction Project, I would like to thank you for your support and contribution, and thank you for your contribution! I wish you all good health, good luck and happiness in the new year.
"
The 24 workers studying in China are mainly from Huangmei, Hubei Province and Queshan, Henan Province, and most of them are spending the New Year at the project site for the first time. Just after the opening of the dinner, 40-year-old Master Wu Jianxin quickly used his mobile phone to video with his family, detailing the dishes of the dinner.
Master Wu introduced that during the Spring Festival, New Year’s Eve will take a day off and go to work normally from the first day to the sixth day. More than 20 people will operate two pile drivers, and it is expected that more than 20 piles will be completed every day. What makes him more satisfied is his income. Besides his salary, he can get no less than 500 yuan’s money every day.
Wudong building-returning project is the largest building-returning project under construction in Qingshan District. Fifteen high-rise houses and supporting facilities are planned to be built, with a total construction area of over 430,000 square meters and a construction period of 1,080 days. According to the plan, 120 pile foundation construction tasks need to be completed during the Spring Festival.
In order to make 24 migrant workers have a happy and peaceful Spring Festival in Han, Wudong Street, where the project is located, and Changjiang Ecological Joint Development Company, the owner, sent condolences such as pork, vegetables, rice and cooking oil, and the project department also prepared in advance to do a good job in service guarantee.
Another kind of reunion dinner warms the hearts of employees

ten to two
On the 28th day of the twelfth lunar month, the municipal bridge company affiliated to Wuhan Eco-environment Investment and Development Group organized the staff of Donghu Tunnel Project Department to make a package of jiaozi and have a reunion dinner together. The staff "celebrated the New Year on the spot" and their happiness continued unabated.
Huang Hu, inspector of Donghu Tunnel Operation Project Department
I come from Xinyang, Henan, and this is my first time to package jiaozi.
"
Dai Futing, Monitor of Donghu Tunnel Operation Project Department
In the north, relatives get together to pack jiaozi before the Chinese New Year. After 12 o’clock on New Year’s Eve, I started cooking jiaozi and eating jiaozi. Although this year is the Spring Festival in Wuhan, I am very happy to have so many colleagues in the company to package jiaozi together, and the atmosphere is very warm.
"
"Eat jiaozi!" Everyone has been busy for a long time, and the steaming jiaozi is finally out of the pot. Xing Jing, the supervisor of the East Lake Tunnel Operation Project Department, had a video conversation with his mother in Weinan, Shaanxi Province while eating jiaozi. She told her mother not to worry. She was very happy in Wuhan for the New Year.
Xing Jing, Monitor of Donghu Tunnel Operation Project Department
Because of the epidemic, we can’t go home for the New Year. Although we are homesick, our colleagues and company leaders are still very happy and feel very warm when we spend the New Year in the company.
"
Stick to your post during the Spring Festival
Workers pay tribute!
I wish you all a happy New Year!
Good luck in the Year of the Ox!
Produced by Wuhan Radio and Television Station
Editor: Zhang Tingting
Media reporter: Huang Peng, Chen Zhefeng, Juck Zhang and Xu Tangjie
Correspondent: Huang Yi Mei Han Wang Kairong
Editor: Qi Wen
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A survey of the concept of financial knowledge

Source: supply chain finance
Financial concept daquan
noun
1. Financial market in a broad sense: generally refers to all financial transactions conducted by both the capital supply and demand sides through various financial instruments, including all monetary financial activities between financial institutions and customers, between financial institutions and between capital supply and demand sides, such as deposits, loans, trusts, leasing, insurance, mortgage and discount of bills, trading of stocks and bonds, gold foreign exchange trading, etc.
2. Narrow financial market: generally limited to financing activities with bills and securities as financial instruments, interbank borrowing between financial institutions and gold foreign exchange transactions.
3. Financial market: the general term for monetary fund transactions, gold foreign exchange trading and interbank lending between financial institutions with bills and securities as financial instruments.
4. Primary market: also known as the issuance market or the primary market, it is a trading market formed when the fund demanders sell financial assets to the public for the first time.
5. Secondary market: the trading market where the issued old securities are transferred and circulated among different investors.
6. Financial instrument: also known as credit instrument, it is a legal document to prove the relationship between creditor’s rights and debts and to conduct monetary and capital transactions accordingly.
7. Stock: a kind of securities, which is a certificate issued by a joint stock limited company to prove the identity and rights of investors as shareholders and to obtain dividends and bonuses accordingly.
8. Common stock: a basic stock issued by a joint-stock company, which is the most standard stock.
9. Priority stocks: stocks issued by joint-stock companies that have priority over ordinary shareholders in terms of company income and distribution of remaining assets.
10. Bond: A written certificate issued by the debtor to the creditor to undertake the obligation of repaying the principal and interest at the agreed time.
11. Treasury bonds: short-term debt certificates issued by the government to make up for the temporary shortage of treasury funds.
12. Mortgaged corporate bonds: bonds issued by companies with real estate or movable property as collateral.
13. Credit corporate bonds: bonds issued by companies that do not use any assets as collateral or guarantee, but rely entirely on the company’s credit.
14. Converting corporate bonds: This kind of bonds stipulates that bondholders can convert into company shares in a certain proportion and under certain conditions within a certain period of time.
15. Corporate bonds with subscription rights for new shares: This bond gives the bondholder the right to buy new shares of the company.
16. Restructured corporate bonds: A bond with lower interest rate issued by a restructured company to reduce the debt burden.
17. Debt-sinking fund corporate bonds: This kind of bonds requires the issuing company to regularly withdraw a certain percentage of profits according to the total issued amount as repayment funds before the maturity of the bonds, and hand them over to the entrusted trust companies or financial institutions for safekeeping, and gradually accumulate them to ensure that the bonds will be repaid in one lump sum.
18. Financial bond: A bond issued to the public by banks and non-bank financial institutions in order to raise funds in accordance with the relevant securities laws and securities issuance procedures of the state, using their own reputation.
19. Fund securities: also known as investment fund securities, are securities issued to the public by the sponsors of investment funds, which prove that the holders enjoy the ownership of assets, the right to return assets and the right to distribute the remaining property according to their shares. It is the product of certain equity combinations of stocks, bonds and other financial products.
20. Bill: negotiable securities that the drawer promises or entrusts the drawee to unconditionally pay a certain amount on the specified date or at sight.
21. Free foreign exchange: It can be bought and sold freely in the foreign exchange market without the approval of the issuing country, and can be freely converted into currencies of other countries. They are widely used as means of payment and circulation in international economic exchanges.
22. Bookkeeping foreign exchange: Without the approval of the relevant foreign exchange administration departments, it cannot be converted into other countries’ currencies, and usually it can only be used between the countries of the agreement according to relevant agreements.
23. Derivative financial instruments: also known as financial derivatives, refer to a kind of financial products whose value depends on original financial instruments.
24. Money market: a short-term financial market with financial assets with a maturity of less than one year as the transaction object.
25. Interbank lending market: a market formed by short-term capital lending activities among various financial institutions.
26. Central bank bills: short-term bonds issued by the People’s Bank of China, with maturities ranging from 3 months to 1 year.
27. Pre-issuance market: In reality, there is a kind of treasury bond trading that is not conducted after the issuance is completed, but immediately after the announcement of the issuance. This trading market is also called the pre-issuance market. Such as WI-Fi transactions in the United States.
28. Transferable large deposit certificate: a certificate of deposit issued by a commercial bank and transferable in the market.
29. Repurchase agreement: When the securities holder sells the securities, it is agreed with the buyer that the seller will buy back an equal amount of the same kind of securities from the buyer at the agreed price on a certain date in the future.
30. Capital increase: An established joint-stock company issues new shares, which is called capital increase.
31. Credit transaction: also known as advance transaction or margin transaction, it is a transaction method in which the customer pays a certain amount of cash or stock to the broker as a margin, and the difference is advanced by the broker.
32. Option trading: Also known as option trading, it means that both parties reach a contract on whether to buy or sell a certain stock at an agreed price and within an agreed time.
33. Stock index futures trading: Futures trading with the stock price index as the object aims to reduce the risk of stock investment and increase the attractiveness of stock investment.
34. Stock index option trading: buying and selling option contracts based on stock price index.
35. Stock exchange: a place organized according to certain methods and rules to conduct centralized securities trading, also known as the floor trading market.
36. Membership system: A stock exchange in the form of membership organization is a legal entity that is formed voluntarily by intermediaries engaged in securities business and is not for profit.
37. Company system: The stock exchange in the form of company system is organized according to the company law. The exchange collects the issuer’s "listing fee" and extracts the "handling fee" and other service fees for securities transactions.
38. Commission broker: a broker who accepts the entrustment of clients, buys and sells on behalf of clients in the exchange and receives a fixed commission.
39. Two-yuan broker: Also known as expert broker, it is specially entrusted by the commission broker, and buys and sells on his behalf, charging a certain commission.
40. Special broker: Also known as professional broker, it is a broker who has a special status in the exchange and is engaged in special securities trading.
41. Securities dealers: also known as trading hall dealers, they only handle self-operated business and do not handle entrusted business.
42. Zero-share dealers: securities firms specializing in stock trading with less than one trading unit.
Brief discussion
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of direct financing and indirect financing?
Advantages of direct financing
(1) The close relationship between the supply and demand of funds is conducive to the rapid and rational allocation of funds and the improvement of efficiency in use.
(2) The cost of financing is low and the investment income is high.
Disadvantages of direct financing
(1) There are many restrictions on the amount, term and interest rate of direct financing.
(2) The liquidity of financial instruments used in direct financing is weaker than that of indirect financing, and their cashing ability is lower.
(3) Direct financing is risky.
Advantages of indirect financing
(1) Flexible and convenient.
(2) High security.
(3) The scale economy of finance has been improved.
Disadvantages of indirect financing
(1) The direct connection between the supply and demand sides of funds is cut off, which will reduce the concern of investors on enterprise production and the pressure and binding force of fund raisers on the use of funds to a certain extent.
(2) intermediary agencies charge a certain fee for providing services, which increases the cost of financing.
2, the relationship between the four elements of financial market.
Financial market participants, financial market trading objects, financial market intermediaries and financial market prices are the four major elements that constitute the financial market. They are closely related, mutually promoting and influencing each other. Among them, financial market participants and financial market trading objects are the most basic elements. As long as these two elements exist, financial markets will be formed, while financial market intermediaries and financial market prices are naturally generated or inevitably accompanied. Perfect intermediary institutions and price mechanisms are important conditions for the development of financial markets.
3. Particularity of financial market.
(1) There are mainly loan relationships and principal-agent relationships among market participants, which are temporary separation or conditional transfer of the right to use and ownership of funds based on credit.
(2) The transaction object is monetary funds or their derivatives.
(3) The transaction mode is special.
(4) The price determination in the market is complicated, with many influencing factors and great fluctuations.
(5) Trading places are invisible in most cases, and the ways of trading through telecommunications and computer networks are becoming more and more common.
4. The main differences between capital market and money market.
(1) Different maturities: all financial instruments traded in the capital market are more than one year, while those traded in the money market are within one year.
(2) Different roles: most of the funds in the capital market are used for the creation, renewal and expansion of equipment and storage materials of enterprises, or the establishment of public utilities and the maintenance of financial balance. Most of the money in the money market is used for short-term working capital of industrial and commercial enterprises.
(3) The degree of risk is different: the risk of credit instruments in the capital market is higher, and the risk of credit instruments in the money market is smaller.
5. Functions and functions of financial markets
(1) Facilitate investment and fund-raising.
(2) Reasonably guide the flow of funds, promote capital concentration and transfer to high-efficiency units.
(3) Facilitate the flexible conversion of funds.
(4) realize risk diversification and reduce transaction costs.
(5) It is conducive to enhancing the flexibility of macro-control.
(6) It is conducive to strengthening economic ties between departments, regions and countries.
6, the difference between financial instruments and financial assets
Financial instruments are sometimes called financial assets, but strictly speaking, these two concepts are different. Although all financial instruments are financial assets to the holders, they cannot be called financial assets if we look at them in isolation. For example, money issued by the central bank and stocks and bonds issued by enterprises cannot be said to be financial assets, because for issuers, money, stocks and bonds are their liabilities. Therefore, money, stocks and bonds should not be simply called financial assets, but should be called financial instruments. Financial instruments are financial assets to the holders.
7. Characteristics of stocks
(1) Stock is a kind of ownership certificate, which represents the certificate of invested share capital.
(2) Stocks are permanent securities with no repayment period.
(3) The return of stock has great uncertainty.
8. Main differences between common stock and preferred stock
(1) Ordinary shareholders enjoy the right to participate in the operation of the company, while preferred shareholders generally do not enjoy the right to participate in the operation of the company.
(2) The income of common shareholders depends on the profitability of the company, while the income of preferred shares is fixed.
(3) Ordinary shareholders cannot withdraw their shares, but can only be realized in the secondary market, while preferred shareholders can request the company to redeem their shares in accordance with the redemption clause attached to the preferred shares.
(4) Priority stock is the most important kind of special stock, which enjoys priority in the company’s profit and the distribution of surplus property.
9, the difference between bonds and stocks
(1) The relationship indicated is different: bonds indicate the relationship between creditor’s rights and debts, and stocks indicate the ownership relationship.
(2) The rights and obligations of investors are different: bond investors have the right to obtain principal and interest, but have no right to ask about business management activities. Stock investors can get the right to operate, but they can’t withdraw their shares to recover their principal.
(3) The determination of income is different: the income of bonds is determined by their interest rates, and the income of stocks depends on the operating conditions of the issuing company.
10, the main reason for the government to issue treasury bonds.
(1) To make up for the temporary and seasonal balance of government finance and meet the temporary capital turnover needs.
(2) When unexpected events occur in the process of budget implementation, resulting in an increase in expenditure and it is difficult to keep up with the income, it is necessary to cope with temporary emergencies.
(3) When the interest rate in the financial market is too high, the interest burden of the government issuing long-term bonds is too heavy, so the short-term treasury bonds are issued first, and then the low-interest long-term bonds are issued after the market interest rate changes in the future.
11, fund securities, stocks and bonds in common.
(1) The investments in fund securities, stocks and bonds are all securities investments.
(2) The forms of fund securities are similar to those of stocks and bonds.
(3) Stocks and bonds are the investment objects of fund securities.
12. The difference between fund securities, stocks and bonds
(1) Different investment status: Shareholders are shareholders of the company and have the right to express their opinions on major decisions of the company. The bondholders are creditors and have the right to recover the principal and interest at maturity. The holder of fund securities is the beneficiary of the fund and has the right to distribute the investment income.
(2) The degree of risk is different: the risk of stocks is the greatest, the risk of fund securities is the second, and the risk of bonds is the smallest.
(3) The returns are different: stocks have the highest returns, followed by fund securities, and bonds have the lowest returns.
(4) Different ways of investment: unlike investors in stocks and bonds, fund securities are an indirect way of securities investment.
(5) Different ways of investment recovery: bond investment has a certain term, and the principal is recovered after the expiration, while stock investment is indefinite. If it is to be recovered, it can only be realized at the market price in the securities exchange market. Fund securities are different depending on the form of funds held.
13. Similarities and differences between negotiable certificates of deposit and general certificates of deposit.
(1) What they have in common is that they are all time certificates of deposit issued by banks, and banks pay interest.
(2) The difference is that it cannot be withdrawn in advance, but it can be transferred at any time. It has a specific amount and term, and the term is short, usually 14 days to one year. The interest is paid in coupon rate every six months or on the maturity date, and the denomination is large. Most large deposit certificates in the United States are $100,000.
14. What are the benefits of negotiable certificates of deposit for banks and investors?
Certificate of deposit is a good financial tool for investors and banks;
(1) certificates of deposit enable commercial banks to take the initiative to issue certificates of deposit in the market to raise funds, so that commercial banks can manage their liabilities and assets more actively.
(2) certificates of deposit enable investors to buy or sell certificates of deposit at any time according to the situation of capital week and adjust their asset portfolio.
(3) certificates of deposit improve the stability of commercial banks’ sources of funds.
15. Purpose of stock issuance
(1) To issue shares for the establishment of a joint-stock company.
(2) shares issued by an established joint-stock company to improve its operation or meet a specific need.
16. Purpose of capital increase
(1) Increase the proportion of self-owned capital and improve the capital structure. (2) maintain or expand business. (3) Meet the listing standards of the stock exchange. (4) promoting cooperation or maintaining the right to operate. (5) Divide benefits among shareholders. (6) Others, such as company restructuring or merger.
17, the characteristics of futures trading
(1) The transaction and delivery are not synchronized. (2) It can be offset at the time of delivery, that is, the liquidation parties only need to pay the difference. (3) There are both ordinary investors and speculators in the transaction.
18, the characteristics of OTC:
(1) A wide range of trading objects. (2) Both parties agree on the transaction price. (3) The trading mode is more flexible. (4) The trading places are scattered.
Transfer from: those things in the investment circle
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